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Nortel Networks Corporation (TSX: NT and Pink Sheets: NRTLQ), formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited and sometimes known simply as Nortel, is a multinational telecommunications equipment manufacturer headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. On January 14, 2009, Nortel filed for protection from creditors in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, in order to restructure its debt and financial obligations.
In 1895, Bell Telephone Company of Canada decided to spin off its manufacturing arm to build phones for sale to other companies as well as other devices such as fire alarm boxes and police street call boxes and fire department call equipment. This company was incorporated as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company Limited. In 1900, this new company began manufacturing the first wind-up gramophones that played flat discs. In 1913, the company's headquarters and main factory was built in Montreal. In 1914, this company merged with Imperial Cable to form Northern Electric, co-owned by Bell Canada and the American company Western Electric. By the end of the First World War, Northern Electric had become a major manufacturer and distributor of Western Electric equipment across Canada.
In 1922, Northern Electric started manufacturing radios. In 1928, it produced the first talking movie sound system in the British Empire for a theater in Montreal.